The post colonial period - 1960

Tuareg conditions continued to deteriorate throughout the thirties. 

Tuaregs became marginalized from the emerging countries all around the Sahara, each building its own territory without any consideration for the Desert people.

As the French withdrew, the Tuaregs tried to participate to the institutional life in Niger and Mali.


Niger - efforts aborted by dictatorships

In Niger the first president - Diori Hamani - had chosen a Tuareg called Mouddour Zakara to head the ministry of "nomad and Saharan affairs", to reaffirm his good intentions to integrate Tuaregs into his governement.

But between 1974 and 1987 Tuaregs were the first victims of the new Dictator Seyni Kountché who did not especially like them.

In 1985 two soldiers of the army of Niger were reported to have been killed by Tuareg dissidents. They were suspected of being influenced by Libya.

Hence, Tuaregs publicly manifested their discontent, which resulted in the expulsion of many Tuaregs considered to be dissidents.

In 1987 the new president Ali Saïbou attempted to convince the refugees in Libya and Algeria to return to Niger. Nevertheless, the repression still occurred in Niger.

Mali - first step of a conflict

The first insurrection in Mali occurred in 1963, against the Bamako government, lead by Modibo Keita. But the Tuaregs were severely repressed. It was probably the precursor of the 90´s rebellion.

Note that the Algerian and Malian Governements collaborated in denouncing the Tuareg refugee leader in southern Algeria.
And France which had just withdrawn from the country showed a certain indifference.
This repression resulted in thousands of deaths.